The Tintern Village Website

Winter 1996


Dear Friends

With Christmas all but on us it seems, perhaps, a little strange to refer back to the Harvest Season. I do so in order to warmly thank all those who made our "Food to Bosnia" appeal such a success. As a measure of what we achieved I can report that over one thousand items were generously donated.
295 items were contributed by the people of Llandogo, 120 from residents of Whitebrook and an impressive total of over 590 items were given by the people of Tintern. In addition many toys and resources were received for the children of Bosnia. A letter of appreciation has been posted on the Church door. Sincere thanks to all who gave so generously.

The "new look" Parish News has been the subject of many favourable comments and full credit must go to John Bathgate for producing such an attractive publication. I do hope that readers will extend their appreciation to him in this respect. Speaking of these matters you will notice a yellow-coloured "pull-out" in this edition. If you are a parent may I urge you to give it your consideration. As a Church we are most anxious to establish a programme of ministry relating to local children. Firstly we need to gauge the likely level of interest and support for the project. The "pull-out" will greatly assist us in this and we thank you for your anticipated co-operation in completing the questionnaire.

The pattern of special services over the Christmas period is as follows :-

December 22nd
9 Lessons & Carols, St Michael's 6.30pm
NB There will be no morning service on this Sunday

December 24th
Midnight Mass, held this year at Llandogo, 11.30pm

December 25th
Christmas Day, St Michael's, 11.00am

Somewhat later than planned the Parish Bible Study / Prayer Group is about to be launched. Earlier this year a number of participants from Tintern enjoyed the course which investigated a section of the New Testament. We trust that our future undertaking will meet with equal enthusiasm. Please look at the article later in this magazine and voice your opinion on the type of group you would be most interested in.

At the time of writing this editorial the sad news of the death of JO ARNATT has just been received. Until recent years Jo (she hated the name Josephine) lived with her family towards the top end of the Angiddy Valley. Originally from Oxford she made the family home in Tintern during the 1960's and loved the area to the end of her days. Although latterly resident in Llandogo she maintained close links with many Tintern people and will be remembered, in particular, for her long involvement with the Tuesday Club. Her sharp mind, wit and pervading sense of humour touched the lives of many and her wonderfully unconventional nature was amused by the fact that her youngest daughter chose to marry what many would consider to be the epitome of conventionalism - a clergyman. In true character she warmly welcomed him into the family and his gratitude and affection will remain as long as the memory of her abides. Jo died aged 66. May she rest in peace and her family draw some small comfort from the thought that the richness of her personality far outweighed the premature span ascribed to it.

Every Good Wish
Julian White (Rector)



Sept : 85 270.27
Oct : 100 324.68
Nov : 62 172.57

Total : 247 767.52

same period 1995 :
332 769.35


Samuel John Hoskins
Molly Louise Rowlands
Rachel Elizabeth Tucker


Andrew Letheren and Annabelle Jarrett
Matthew Bennett and Gemma McDonnell


Roger Williams


The Rector officiated at the funeral of the late Mr Roger Williams of Sylvan View in St Michael's Church followed by an internment at St Mary's Churchyard, Chapel Hill. He was buried with his wife Enid who died about a year ago.
Roger was a member of an old Tintern family. The Church was filled by relatives and friends who came to offer sympathy and pay their last respects.


As previously mentioned, Llandogo and Whitebrook churches in partnership with Tintern parish and other interested individuals, will soon commence a Winter programme of House Group Meetings.
Following the support given to a similar project last Winter it now appears that two groups would best meet the requirements of local residents. This is not an "either / or" situation, as everyone is welcome to attend both groups, but rather an attempt to meet the wishes of the majority.
In order to establish the pattern, your views are needed at the earliest opportunity. Would you please take a few minutes to digest the following suggestions and to respond to them?


John Dearnley has proposed a number of stimulating ideas that will provide for a richer spiritual life. The intention is to identify the purpose and practice of prayer, to explore traditional and new ways of praying and to embrace the value of silence and contemplation. There will be the possibility of inviting respected practitioners of prayer to lead some of the meetings, and visits to places of recognised spirituality are also an option. It is hoped that a Parish Quiet Day, Pilgrimage and Retreat may come to fruition.


Many members reported that their experiences last year (a study of the book of The Acts of The Apostles) proved valuable. For the coming season, we could take a similar path and look closely at another book of The Bible so that our understanding of Scripture is increased. We could also, as an example, take a wider view, and investigate religion in art, literature and drama, with the occasional visiting speaker and visits away forming part of the course.
Another alternative might be to have a "DISCUSSION GROUP" where a selected topic is presented for open debate.
Would all those interested please let me know which approach they prefer - or indeed suggest different ones.
I would be most grateful to receive your opinions as soon as possible in order that the final formats may be worked out. Would you also state the day of the week and the time which would be most convenient to you for these courses.

Please give your views and suggestions (in writing if possible) to any of the following :-

Julian White, Llandogo Rectory
Major David Cowell (Churchwarden), Rose Cottage, Trellech Road
Mr Des Carter (Churchwarden), Melrose, Tintern


Please note that the closing date for the Spring 1997 issue is
Articles and requests for advertisements for the Parish News should be sent or delivered to the Editor :-
Mrs K Heron Hillcrest, St Anne's Lane, Tintern 01291-689408


It is with heavy hearts that we have to record the death of Jo. Arnatt. She took on the task of Club Co-ordinator about 10 years ago and endeared herself to members down the years.
No matter how grey the day her happy smile and cheerful, friendly personality soon chased the blues away.
We will all remember the happy times - outings, parties, and tea in Summer in her garden in Tintern and later in Llandogo to mention just a few.

When we were so successful in the Tintern carnivals it was Jo who had the bright ideas. She was very good company, fun to be with and always ready to pitch in no matter what the task. Nothing was too much trouble.
Her years with us have been the most successful in the history of the club (22 years). We owe her much. Her passing will be keenly felt for a long time to come.

We have all lost a much loved friend.



Again, our traditional Harvest Supper on the 12th October was a sell- out well before its sell-by date. Our thanks are again due to Madge and David Cowell who organised the event, together with their regiment of providers, cooks, servers and washers-up. There was much to do both before and after the appointed time. The hall was looking at its best with colourful laid tables, the table tennis table converted into a double-sided buffet and the wonderful sound of nearly seventy guests clearly out to enjoy themselves - and succeeding.
The supper itself was the traditional one of cold ham and tongue (David Hunt's best), creamed potatoes (Redding's farm), a variety of salads, pickles and chutneys, and ciders from Ken Lightwood's Belle View Off- licence at the hub of the village. Warm apple pies and trifles topped with cream from an enormous bowl were followed by cheese and coffee or tea. A splendid repast with no thoughts of diets or cholesterol levels. Then it was time for the evening's guest speaker.
This year, it was David Cooksey from Castle Farm, Usk with a fascinating account of his many years of devotion to owls. Although we still enjoy the sound of the tawny variety at night here in Tintern, owls are now fast declining in numbers with changes in habitat, destruction of their natural hunting grounds, road traffic and, in the case of the Barn owl, modern buildings which all too often keep them out.
But help is at hand from David and his "Owl Trust"friends with improved nesting facilities, rescue, breeding and eventual release out into the wild in carefully chosen locations. His presentation was illustrated with some beautiful slides and culminated with the entry of Wendy and Toby, blinking in the light and taking a good look at us with their constantly swivelling heads. They even allowed some of us to caress their beautiful coats. And to think that only seven weeks previously Wendy was an egg!

The evening concluded with a well-stocked raffle and the auction of some surplus food. This is usually the province of the Rector but as he had a sore throat David Cowell stepped in at short notice and with great success. Rector Julian said that it would have to be either the auction or Sunday morning's sermon. The fact that we opted for the latter says much for his powers as a preacher.



When the Rev. W R and Mrs Thomas nobly took on the responsibility of Tintern Parish in 1973 it may be said that things were at a low ebb, see footnote. One of the annual events they instigated was the Harvest Supper. In the Autumn of 1976 they borrowed large quantities of crockery and other necessities from Llandogo (Tintern village hall was not then fully equipped) and instructed a few greenhorns on how to entertain the populace at 50 pence per head on cold meats, salads, apple tarts, cider, tea and coffee.
The following extracts from diaries of the period may be compared with similar events in the last decade of this century.

Oct 76 Quite a good meal, slow in starting, prolonged bingo at the end. Stephen Calvin won the full house much to his delight.

Oct 77 Sid Jones and Patrick Heron put up the tables in rectangular fashion while arguing about it. Returned at 2.30 to put the tables back and get the food ready.

Oct 79 We went to the Harvest Festival twice, about 35 attended in the evening and one alsatian dog. 46 tickets were sold for the supper. We had a beetle game, raffle and a parcel game for the children.

Oct 82 Wally Boast, John Spary and Patrick Heron put up the tables. The Rector showed slides of local views and happenings in the past ten years. The slides were supplied by W R Thomas, S Jones, R Wait and P Heron.

Oct 84 Most successful meal as regards the menu. 82.85 taken. Mr Thomas said grace as the Rector was not there when we were all seated. Anne Cooke gave us a slide show of churches and castles in Gwent.

Oct 86 Only two Cowells and Patrick Heron to put up the tables but otherwise a very good evening with the Rector playing his part well.

footnote : 4 Feb 73 At church, no organist, a lay reader, no sermon, four people present.



It has always been gratifying to read the many messages of thanks and goodwill in our visitor's book for the peace and beauty to be found at St Michael's, standing as it does right astride the Wye Valley Walk. Evidence perhaps that the Church has a mission of just being there.
During the Summer, however, some visitors went further and left a note pinned to the lectern and simply addressed to the "Rector".
"Our parents and other relatives are buried at St Mary's on the hill, and we are very grateful for the band of volunteers who are keeping the churchyard trimmed and cared for. A relative is also buried in this churchyard (St Michael's) which is also well cared for, and it is good to find this church open.
Blessings and peace to you all.

Betty and Monica Finnemore, Birmingham "



Among the regular notices pinned to the boards on the porch doors is a list of those unsung heroines who are regularly concerned to keep the church cleaned and brightly polished through the year. We salute them, and perhaps give them the name adopted by a south coast church for their own devoted band : "The Holy Dusters".



Regular events taking place at the Village Hall are :-

Every Monday 5.30-8.30 Youth Club
Every other Tuesday 2.30-5.30 Tuesday Club (for Senior Citizens)
Every other Tuesday 7.30 Whist Drive (same Tuesday as above)
Every Thursday 7.30 Social Evening (Bingo)
Every Friday 7.30 Badminton Club
Third Friday in each month 7.30 Village Produce Association

The Hall is available for bookings at other times by organisations and individuals.
Further details from the Booking Secretary - Mrs Hubbard on Tintern 689214


On alternate Tuesdays, a Whist Drive is held in the Village Hall, towards the cost of the parcels given to the Senior Citizens of the village at Christmas. A friendly evening and a cuppa - come and join us! Commences at 7.30pm, (from the 19th of November).



There was sweat, laughter and money changing hands. No, I am not talking about the UEFA Cup Final, but something nearly as momentous - the reopening of the Tintern Youth Club!
OK, so the sweat was mainly sweated by us during our scarily thorough interviews a couple of weeks ago, but the other bits took part on the actual opening night. And what an opening night!
An introductory game was followed by lots of cheesy grinning as we all had our photos taken to christen our new notice board. Next it was a fast and furious game of handball - though no-one seems too sure who actually won!
The tuckshop then opened and everyone chomped their way through several Mars bars, and several hundred penny sweets. Video suggestions were then made and a game of football finished the evening off, and acted as a practice for our six-a-side tournament being held on the next Sunday. And all that in the space of two and a half hours!!
So if you are aged between 10 and 14 and are at a loose end on Monday evenings, come down to Tintern Village Hall and find out what goes on for yourself. We're there from 6 - 8.30pm and the entry is 1.



The Old Tintern Station called in two "apple experts", Mike Foster, known to many from the VPA, and David Lewis to identify apples brought along by the public. Some thirty varieties of British apples were on display. Apple pies and apple cake etc were also on offer.
The day was organised by Monmouthshire County Council and was considered successful enough for it to become a regular event.

from an article in The Press

NEWS FLASH! (from the Times)

A lightning conductor on the steeple at Golcar, near Huddersfield, picks up Radio 1 and relays it on the Church's public address system during services. The Vicar commented "We try to use modern music in our services, but not on this scale."
Unfortunately, St Michael's has no lightning conductor, not yet anyway.
Perhaps a flood warning device would be more useful.



The October meeting of the WI was held at the Royal George Hotel, when Officers and Committee were elected. They are as follows :-

President - June Bellamy
Vice President - Margaret Keys
Secretary - Jan Gibbard
Treasurer - Heather Mather
Committee - Christine Bradshaw
Committee - Katherine McEwen

Following the meeting, Margaret Francis, an expert Flower Arranger and Sugarcraft Cake Decorator showed some of her cake arrangements. These were in the form of bouquets, garden scenes and vases of flowers, which looked so real we expected them to have a scent.
The Christmas meeting (7.30 pm, Wednesday 18/12/96) will be an informal evening at the Royal George. Other meetings will be held on the third Monday of every month at the Royal George Hotel. We should like to take this opportunity to thank Mrs Pearce very much for letting us meet in the hotel.
Everybody is welcome provided you are a woman - sorry gents, you will have to start your own.

Jean Davey 689212


January 13th 1993 will be remembered in Tintern for some time. Now after almost four years, work has commenced on the flood alleviation scheme.
Work began in mid-October on the new culvert to carry the Limekiln Brook under the A466 road towards the river by Abbey Farm.
The biggest job will be the replacement of the culvert beneath the A466 taking the River Angiddy into the Abbey Mill. Because it entails exposing existing services; water, electricity, sewage, telephones and storm water drains and protecting them during the tricky business of extracting the old culvert and placing the new one in position, the road will be closed.
A Bailey Bridge will be erected by the Contractor to span the Angiddy parallel to the main road. Lights will control single way traffic to and fro through the forecourt and car park of the Royal George Hotel, across the bridge and through the garden of Bay Cottage onto the main road.
It is hoped that the County Council Highways and the Police Traffic Management departments will combine to notify road haulage companies of these restrictions and, at least, reduce the number of five and six axle vehicles allowed to use the lower Wye Valley A466 road as a short cut to and from the Severn Bridge.
We also hope full consideration will be given to Tintern Surgery and Abbey Mill.



These windy and rainy days make Spring seem a distant but inviting prospect. We all look forward to the first signs that Winter is ending, with the emergence of banks of daffodils and narcissi on the road-sides, and the floral contributions made by residents and business's in the village on their own properties.
Recently the Village Produce Association invited donations to enable further planting to take place on public areas, in addition to that undertaken last year. The response from those approached was most generous, and consequently several sacks of bulbs were purchased. On a dull but dry day last September a working party of members set-to, and carried out planting at sites at both ends of the A466 within the village, and at available intermediate points.
The results will not of course appear until next year, but it is hoped that everybody in the village, as well as visitors, will be able to enjoy a fine floral display heralding the start of Spring.



Since our annual show in August we have enjoyed two meetings in the Village Hall, one showing the evolution of Wentwood Forest over the ages and the other giving us some idea of Monmouth's development since the turn of the century. Both were so different in subject matter yet made fascinating by the enthusiasm of the speakers.
We have had two County events in October, the first being the Harvest Festival held this year at Shirenewton and attended by members of all the affiliated VPAs. Several hundred pounds were raised for various charities when garden produce was auctioned after the service and supper.
The second was the County AGM at which the results of the Spring and Summer garden competitions were announced. We always seem to do well and this year was no exception. Congratulations go to Miss Judith Russill and Mrs Jean Bathgate who came first and third respectively in the Spring feature section with Judith also gaining third place in the Spring garden section and to Mr Brian Young who came second in the Summer vegetable garden section.
Laurels are now being rested upon until the growing season comes round again and in the meantime we can enjoy our monthly meetings and a gardening life of relative ease.



A musical extravaganza featuring the Chepstow Male Voice Choir plus Musikverein Mossingen was recently held at the Anchor Hotel on behalf of the Tintern Surgery Equipment Fund. This successful event drew a large crowd, with tickets sold well in advance.
The audience filled every available seat in the Anchor's function room and a very warm welcome was given to Musikverein Mossingen - a visiting brass band from Germany, who got the evening off to a splendid start with plenty of hand clapping and audience participation.
Following the band, the mood took a different feel when the Chepstow Male Voice Choir lined up and offered an outstanding selection of songs with their wonderful voices and soothing harmonies.
The evening proved to be enjoyable to all age groups and the proceeds went to Tintern Surgery, which has been fund-raising for the past two years for surgery equipment. All thanks go to the very many supporters of this fund who, through kind efforts and generous donations, have already enabled an ECG machine and a Defibrillator to be purchased.



No, not Parliamentary ones - that particular saga came to a satisfactory conclusion many years ago - but for our long awaited female Priests. In September 1996 the Church in Wales, at the second attempt, passed the resolution by the necessary majority to drag itself into line with the rest of the Anglican communion to permit the ordination to full priesthood of those many devoted women in our midst whose calling has been frustrated for so many years.
Mind you, it was a close run thing when as before, the overwhelming decision of support by both Bishops and Laity was all but overturned in their separate vote by the Clergy. In fact the news reports said that the necessary majority in the Clergy voting was secured by just one member.
Thereby, surely, hangs a tale but whether it will ever be adequately told is another matter. Ours is not to reason why. In any case by the time these words appear in print, the first ordinations will have taken place.
Praise be!



How foreign can you get? An ex-Londoner now living on the outskirts of a Welsh version of Blackpool, minus the tower! Joking apart, I now live in an area on the edge of a large coastal town, and what an extremely attractive area it is. Within a few hundred yards (or metres if you insist), say five minutes walk, we have the entrance to Porthkerry Country Park, a long wooded valley leading down to the Bristol Channel, full of wildlife, walks both country and coastal, a pitch and putt golf course, children's playground etc; and, if the wind is in the right direction, a close view of low flying planes landing or taking off from Cardiff (Rhoose) Airport.
In the opposite direction, again downhill and approximately the same distance, Romilly Park, this time a formal park with a very pleasant green area laid out with flower beds, many varied trees, tennis courts, bowling green, children's playground and no notices confining visitors to the paths. A walk through there will lead you to "The Knap" with its lakeside area, heavily flower bedded, an open air swimming pool, and a promenade of great length along which, if you feel fit, can walk to the Channel end of Porthkerry Park. If you are lazy (like me and many others) you can take the short cut across an extremely large sloping grass area, with breath- taking views across the Channel to Somerset or across Barry to the Flat and Steepholm Islands.
The difference between the beauty here and at Tintern is that this area, although just across a causeway from Barry Island, is not a tourist haunt and quiet walks can be taken without jumping out of the way of vehicles and without tripping over tourists or the rubbish they leave behind them.
The natives are quite friendly, although Beryl and I had some funny looks when we smiled and bade "Good Morning" to, at that time, complete strangers. However, we persevered and they are now converting to our Tintern ways and even returning the greeting.
Needless to say, we both miss our many friends in Tintern, but are slowly settling in and are now down to about fifteen boxes and at the stage of not caring what is still in them! We can even remember (sometimes) which cupboard contains "such and such", but could not fathom out why we always retired to bed with aching legs and feet until we realised that this house is much larger than the cottage and we were walking further in a normal day. Still, they say exercise is good for you!
The one thing that is very evident and on which Beryl and I whole- heartedly agree, is that Tintern and its residents and associations will be an extremely hard act to follow!!

Our very best wishes to you all!



(with apologies to "A Year in Provence)

Summer is long gone now but our new collator of "Parish News" is extremely persuasive when it comes to filler material, so read on or turn over as the fancy takes you.
In fact, the first week of our Irish holiday was unremarkable once we'd found our holiday cottage situated in a little village which the AA and Reader's Digest together hadn't even bothered to include in my brand new "Book of the Road" bought especially for the occasion.
But the second week will always remain in a memory which is finding it increasingly difficult to remember where I parked the car or even what I went into town for in the first place and the reason for this total recall is Mikey, an Irish plumber without equal.
You see, we'd changed cottages after a week moving from one with only one bathroom for the four of us to one with shower rooms upstairs and downstairs, handbasins in each bedroom etc etc. Such luxury we thought as we unpacked and as one of the shower rooms was next to my bedroom, I quickly found my sponge bag and towel and nipped in for a quick splash only to find the shower rose remained annoyingly dry however much I tapped and twiddled. A quick yell down the stairs sent Jane next door where our landlord was living to report the fault. Many apologies but never fear, we were told, a plumber will come before the day is out - and one did!
Halfway through the evening a knock on the door heralded Mikey carrying a seven foot ladder with three treads and with vague mutterings about air locks, he disappeared through the ceiling in Kate's bedroom. Two hours later he left with a beautiful smile for "the four English ladies" and a promise to be back in the morning when he would fix it for sure.
We now had no water at all upstairs but Mikey duly arrived on Sunday and by the time he left to go to a funeral in the afternoon, water was also refusing to flow from most of the taps in the house, including the kitchen. The resulting good news was that the landlord and his wife insisted on doing all the washing up but the bad news was that Mikey went to the wake and wasn't seen by wife or friends until Tuesday when he reappeared late in the day, rather pale and with a friend to steady the ladder.
On Wednesday though, he was strong enough to realise that the parts he had fitted should have been metric in size - but of course by the time he had rectified that and then turned the water back on we really did have an air lock.
So Thursday morning was spent still without water, also without Mikey but we did have an absolute assurance that all the odd gurgles, splutters and knocking noises meant that water should soon be available again - and it was.
Unfortunately, all the excitement had been too just too much for a little tap washer in one of the hand basins and now the downstairs cloakroom was doubling up as a foot bath.
At which point, Joan and I decided that much as we loved the people, the scenery and the food we were simply not strong enough to cope with the plumbing and explained that if we didn't leave straight away we would miss the following day's ferry..... but that's another story!


Remember Pauline's perils? Were you there when Gene, Roy and Hopalong rode the range? Do you still long for those halcyon days when one shilling and ninepence purchased you the best seat in the back row of the stalls and three solid hours of film entertainment in cosy intimate darkness?
Much of this nostalgia can still be yours at the Savoy Theatre in Monmouth. Housed in a building over a century old, the theatre/cinema is one of the oldest in Wales, originally opened in 1928. It still has a stage, an orchestra pit, a mask of Janus over the stage, the original hide chandeliers, moulded ceilings and much of the atmosphere you would expect in an old fashioned music hall. Going through the double doors into the marble floored foyer is taking a step down Memory Lane, half expecting Margaret Rutherford in the glass fronted vestibule giving out tickets to a farmer's family for the price of one live chicken.
When first opened, the theatre could seat 420 persons in the stalls and gallery, but it now seats about 100, as the gallery is closed, and many of the stall seats have been removed. The theatre is in need of much renovation and repair, but it is a grade II listed building, and the present owners are hopeful of obtaining charitable status, and thus attracting funding to enable them to restore the Savoy to its former glories.
In the meantime, current popular films are shown daily at 7.45pm, with matinees on Saturdays and Sundays, and private showings of films can be arranged through the management. The Savoy Theatre is well worth a visit, if only to sample the delightful atmosphere, and at 2 a head, the visit won't break the bank.



The original "Spoonerism", they say, was delivered by the Rev. Archibald William Spooner, while conducting a service in New College Chapel in Oxford, when he announced the first line of a Hymn as "Kinquering Kongs, their Titles Take."
His subsequent verbal bloomers delighted hundreds of his Oxford students and have been constantly added to right down to the present day. Let's hear some (with the Editor's permission) from our readers.
How about these for a start?

"After our Harvest Festival, gifts will be sent to the nick and seedy".
"The rector knows every crook and nanny in the Parish."
And, at the end of a marriage service : "It is kistomary to cuss the bride."

And then what about the lady who found a stranger sitting in her usual seat in church : "Pardon me, but you are occupewing my pie, may I sew you to another sheet?"



Saturday 7th December at 2.00pm

Father Christmas will drive through the Village and arrive at the Hall at 2.00pm when the doors will be open for the Bazaar. Our many stalls will include raffles, Christmas gifts, cakes, bric-a-brac and a return of our own Mystic and teas.
Assuming that this Parish News is published in time, if you have anything you would like to donate for the raffle or stalls - bottles, prizes, cakes etc please contact Madge Cowell 689579, Jean Davey 689212, or Margaret Keys 689457.

Thank you.

50/50 CLUB

For the past eight years this parish has run a 50/50 Club which has proved a success in raising money for the Church and in support of charities. Half the money paid in by members is repaid in the form of cash prizes thus affording members a chance of some return on their giving.

Recent winners are :

1st 2nd 3rd
Sep H and S Beak(89) Miss J Bartholomew(56) A W Smith(94)
Oct Mrs N Lambert(93) F F Keys(45) Rachael Gibbard(66)
Nov A and W Boast(49) M and J Davey(83) Mrs M Sullivan(92)